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What Is Constitution Day?

Since its inception, the United States of America has been held together by its founding document, the Constitution of the United States. This document serves as supreme law and the framework of America’s three branches of government. To mark the significance of the U.S. Constitution and what it stands for, September 17 has been designated a day of observance and celebration – Constitution Day. Read on to learn more about what Constitution Day is, why we celebrate it, and how you can recognize the day with your family.

What Is Constitution Day?
Originally, Constitution Day was recognized as Citizenship Day but was changed in 2004 when Sen. Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) added an amendment to an appropriations bill that forever changed it to Constitution Day and Citizenship Day. Byrd’s intent was not only to give the Constitution further recognition, but also to increase awareness and knowledge of the document by mandating its teaching in the classroom.

Though the 2004 effort brought Constitution Day into the national conversation, the day was first observed in Iowa in 1911. In the decades that followed, the day became known as “I Am American Day,” a precursor to the aforementioned Citizenship Day.

On the 230th anniversary of the Constitution’s founding, the Trump Administration reaffirmed September 17 as Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, and designated September 17–23 as Constitution Week.

Why the Constitution Matters
Finalized at the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787, and later ratified on June 21, 1788, the Constitution serves as a living document by which the United States functions. Though the lawmakers who signed it could not have imagined how different society would be today, the premise of the Constitution remains intact, evolving over the decades through the amendment process.

Makeup of the Constitution
More than 230 years after the words were first written into the Constitution, “We the People” remains one of the most famous phrases in American history. Known as the Preamble, the complete opening paragraph to the Constitution appears as follows:

"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."

That paragraph describes not just the intent, but the foundation for all articles and amendments that follow.

Articles of the Constitution
The Preamble includes seven articles. Here we offer a quick overview on each:

Article I established the legislative branch of the government, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the U.S. Senate, outlining the function and powers of lawmakers and how they are elected to serve the American people. Further, Article I established the framework for U.S. elections and the legislative process.

Article II establishes the executive branch and the duties of the President of the United States. The second article also details such responsibilities as the State of the Union and the groundwork for removal of a president, vice president, or civil officer of the United States.

Article III of the Constitution establishes the judicial powers of the courts, notably the U.S. Supreme Court.

Article IV addresses “the states’ relations with each other, sometimes called ‘horizontal federalism.’” Among the topics included: how new states are admitted into the Union, the acknowledgement of differing laws between the states, and how persons charged with a crime can be transported between states.

Article V lays the groundwork for the amendment process by which the Constitution evolves.

Article VI, which includes the Supremacy Clause and No Religious Test Clause, ensures that the Constitution be recognized as the supreme law of the land and rejects the notion that any religious test be required for those serving in government.

Article VII deals with the ratification of the Constitution, declaring that it shall be valid once ratified by nine states. Why nine? According to Mark Graber, Regents Professor at the University of Maryland Carey School of Law:

"The point of nine was to get 13. Article VII may declare that the Constitution of the United States was the law of the land when ratified by nine states, but both the Framers and text clearly anticipated a union of all 13 states. Nine encouraged early ratification while preventing holdout states from extracting favorable concessions. The politics underlying Article VII highlights the importance of thinking about how constitutions are supposed to work, rather than worrying exclusively on what words meant at a particular time period."

Amendments to the Constitution
The following words by Thomas Jefferson are engraved on the wall of the Jefferson Memorial in the nation’s capital:

"I am not an advocate for frequent changes in laws and constitutions, but laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths discovered and manners and opinions change, with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also to keep pace with the times. We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy as civilized society to remain ever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors."

The Founding Father and third President of the United States recognized that the Constitution should exist as a living document that changes over time, and that those seeking to enshrine it would only chain us to the aforementioned “barbarous ancestors.”

The Constitution currently includes 27 amendments, some of them – the First Amendment, Second Amendment, and Fifth Amendment, among others – are more well-known than others, but every amendment is vital to American democracy.

The amendments to the Constitution and the subjects they address are as follows:

First Amendment
Freedom of Religion, Speech,
Press, Assembly, and Petition

Second Amendment
Right to Bear Arms

Third Amendment
Quartering of Soldiers

Fourth Amendment
Search and Seizure

Fifth Amendment
Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy,
Self-Incrimination, Due Process,
and Takings

Sixth Amendment
Right to Speedy Trial by Jury,
Witnesses, and Counsel

Seventh Amendment
Jury Trial in Civil Lawsuits

Eighth Amendment
Excessive Fines and Cruel and
Unusual Punishment

Ninth Amendment
Non-Enumerated Rights
Retained by People

10th Amendment
Rights Reserved to States or
People

11th Amendment
Suits Against States

12th Amendment
Election of President and Vice
President

13th Amendment
Abolition of Slavery

14th Amendment
Citizenship Rights, Equal
Protection, Apportionment
and Civil War Debt

15th Amendment
Right to Vote Not Denied by
Race

16th Amendment
Income Tax

17th Amendment
Income Tax

18th Amendment
Prohibition of Liquor

19th Amendment
Women’s Right to Vote

20th Amendment
Presidential Term and
Succession and Assembly of
Congress

21st Amendment
Repeal of Prohibition

22nd Amendment
Two-Term Limit on Presidency

23rd Amendment
Presidential Vote for District of
Columbia

24th Amendment
Abolition of Poll Taxes

25th Amendment
Presidential Disability and
Succession

26th Amendment
Right to Vote at Age 18

27th Amendment
Congressional Compensation

How You Can Celebrate Constitution Day
On September 17, Americans are asked to take a moment to learn more about the Constitution’s origins and its interpretations. The National Constitution Center remains one of the premier resources for understanding the Constitution. You can explore its history on the National Constitution Center website.

Constitution Day is an opportunity for all of us to become inspired by our shared history and acknowledge those who worked to advance our nation in its earliest days. If you are a parent or educator who grew up learning about the Constitution and its importance in school, you can also become a role model by passing along that knowledge to the next generation.

Here are some ideas for recognizing Constitution Day:

  1. Get to Know the Founding Fathers
    The 40 founding fathers – including George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and Benjamin Franklin, among others – all played a significant role in the creation of the United States and its Constitution. Create a game in which your child or student must memorize one fact about each of the founding fathers. Write their names on one set of index cards, and write one fact about each person on another set of cards. Then, play a match game in which your child or student matches each fact with the corresponding “founding father.”

  2. Play “The Amendment Game”
    Similar to the founding fathers match game, try to match constitutional amendment cards with cards that explain each amendment.

  3. Watch “The People’s Constitution: 200 Years, 27 Amendments, and the Promise of a More Perfect Union”
    The National Archives Museum Online will host a YouTube discussion with authors John Kowal and Wilfred Codrington III on September 17 at 1 pm EDT. The authors will talk about how “generations have reshaped our founding document amid some of the most colorful, contested, and controversial battles in American political life.” You can register for the free event at the National Archives Foundation website.

  4. Virtually Sign the Constitution!
    Add your name to America’s founding document via the National Archives website. You can choose your penmanship style – colonist, American, or patriot – and also sign the Declaration of Independence.

  5. Tour the Amending America Exhibit
    Take a virtual tour of the Amending America exhibit, which highlights the remarkable American story of how we have amended, or attempted to amend, the Constitution in order to form a nation that more closely mirrors our ideals. The virtual tour is available on the National Archives YouTube page.

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